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Newly updated for Rails 5, the Ruby on Rails Tutorial book and screencast series teach you how to develop and deploy real, industrial-strength web applications with Ruby on Rails, the open-source web framework that powers top websites such as Twitter, Hulu, Git Hub, and the Yellow Pages.The Ruby on Rails Tutorial book is available for free online and is available for purchase as an ebook (PDF, EPUB, and MOBI formats).A framework for a given adaptive system requires the definition of a set of strategies $S$, a set of environments $E$, and criterion for ranking strategies $X$.
This section presents a brief review of Holland's adaptive systems formalism described in [Holland1975] (Chapter 2).
Primary Objects are the conventional objects of an adaptive system: the environment $e$, the strategy or adaptive plan that creates solutions in the environment $s$, and the utility assigned to created solutions $U$.
Secondary Objects extend beyond the primary objects providing the detail of the formalism.
Articles and books are available that include guidance and general OTS validation approaches. Off-the-Shelf Software: A Broader Picture (warning PDF) is very informative in this regard: This is great stuff, but unfortunately it does not help you answer question #5 for a particular type of software. OTS really implies Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software.
The “commercial” component is important because it presumes that the software in question is a purchased product (typically in a “shrink-wrapped” package) that is designed, developed, and supported by a real company.
This presentation focuses particularly on the terms and their description, and has been hybridized with the concise presentation of the formalism by De Jong [Jong1975] (page 6).