Validating scales and indexes Chat rooms for sexual slaves
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability, and determine the clinical importance, of change on a 0–10 numeric rating scale (NRS) as a patient-rated measure of the perceived severity of spasticity.Methods: Using data from a large,randomized,doubleblind, placebo-controlled study of an endocannabinoid system modulator in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity, we evaluated the test-retest reliability and comparison-based validity of a patient-reported 0-10 NRS measure of spasticity severity with the Ashworth Scale and Spasm Frequency Scale.We estimated the level of change from baseline on the 0–10 NRS spasticity scale that constituted a clinically important difference (CID) and a minimal CID (MCID) as anchored to the patient's global impression of change (PGIC).Results: Data from a total of 189 patients were included in this assessment (114 women, 75 men; mean age, 49.1 years).It creates a 6- point scale from 0 = not at all unstable to 5 = highly unstable, with higher levels predictive of adverse outcomes such as mortality, hospitalization, pain, caregiver stress, and poor self-rated health.
The purpose of this study is to validate the Ohio Scales in a JJI youth population (N = 2246).
Early loss ADLs (for example, dressing) are assigned lower scores than late loss ADLs (for example, eating).
The Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) combines information on memory impairment, level of consciousness, and executive function, with scores ranging from 0 (intact) to 6 (very severe impairment).
Clinician-rated measures of spasticity purport to be objective but do not measure the patient's experience and may not be sensitive to changes that are meaningful to the patient.
In a patient with clinical spasticity, the best judge of the perceived severity of the symptom is the patient.
Using the Ohio Scales Problem Severity measure as a three sub-factor measure may increase clinical applicability by allowing a clinician to specifically measure and target externalizing or internalizing issues during treatment.