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Sts 5, "Mrs Ples", Australopithecus africanus Discovered by Robert Broom in 1947 at Sterkfontein in South Africa. It has usually been thought to be female, but there has been a recent claim that it is male. It is about 2.5 million years old, with a brain size of about 485 cc.
(It has recently been claimed that the fossils Sts 5 and Sts 14 (see next entry) were from the same individual) Sts 14, Australopithecus africanus Discovered by Robert Broom and J. Robinson in 1947 at Sterkfontein (Broom and Robinson 1947). This find consisted of a nearly complete vertebral column, pelvis, some rib fragments, and part of a femur of a very small adult.
Each entry will consist of a specimen number if known (or the site name, if many fossils were found in one place), any nicknames in quotes, and a species name. ARA-VP-6/500, "Ardi", Ardipithecus ramidus Discovered by a team led by Tim White in 1994 at Aramis in Ethiopia (White et al. KP 271, "Kanapoi Hominid", Australopithecus anamensis Discovered by Bryan Patterson in 1965 at Kanapoi in Kenya (Patterson and Howells 1967).
This is a lower left humerus which is about 4.0 million years old.
The large rounded brain, canine teeth which were small and not apelike, and the position of the foramen magnum(*) convinced Dart that this was a bipedal human ancestor, which he named Australopithecus africanus (African southern ape).
Although the discovery became famous, Dart's interpretation was rejected by the scientific community until the mid-1940's, following the discovery of other similar fossils.
(Creationist arguments) AL 444-2, Australopithecus afarensis Discovered by Bill Kimbel and Yoel Rak in 1991 at Hadar in Ethiopia (Kimbel et al. According to its finders, it strengthens the case that all the First Family fossils were members of the same species, because the differences between AL 444-2 and the smaller skulls in the collection are consistent with other sexually dimorphic hominoids. This is a mostly complete, but heavily distorted, cranium with a large, flat face and small teeth.
It is the oldest known evidence for hominid bipedalism.
The pelvis is more human than apelike, and is strong evidence that africanus was bipedal (Brace et al.
1979), although it may not have had the strong striding gait of modern humans (Burenhult 1993).
TM 1512, Australopithecus africanus (was Plesianthropus transvaalensis) Discovered by Robert Broom in 1936 at Sterkfontein in South Africa (Broom 1936).
The second australopithecine fossil found, it consisted of parts of the face, upper jaw and braincase.