6 I n th e Russ i an r e vo l ut i onary mov e m e nt Ch. Still earlier, at the turn of the 10 th century the presence of a "khazar force and a khazar garrison," was chronicled in Kiev. Maybe he 196 received secret support from some quarters (22)? It would have been too much of a scandal to punish such a famous publicist, who just returned from abroad and could have harmed a reverse migration that was so important for Soviet authorities [Translator's note: "reverse migration" - return of people who emigrated from Russia during previous period of revolutions and Civil War].) The 20's were spoken of as the "conquest" by the Jews of Russian capital cities and industrial centers where conditions were better.  In November 1930 the People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade was created, and A. Still let's not overlook the Tsentrosoyuz (the bureaucratic center of Soviet pseudo-cooperation). And there was another objection from Teush: "Your Solomonov has anything but Jewish personality. 18 This number included, as we have seen, 1,000,000 to 1,100,000 Eastern Jews and more than 200,000 Western Jews from the soon-to-be-occupied areas. Later researchers confirm likewise that in the 11 th century, the "Jewish element" in Kiev is to be derived from the Khazars. ) Agursky writes: "one would expect repression to swiftly follow for such a speech in the 20's and 30's," but Klyutchnikov got off. In 1936, Lev Maryasin became chairman of the board of the Gosbank; he was replaced in that post by Solomon Krutikov in 1936. In general, in the People's Commisariats of Trade and Supply, the Jewish component was higher than in the upper party echelons — from a quarter to a half. Moreover, they prophesized that my very name will be irretrievably lost and blemished if I leave Solomonov in the play. However, the situation was soon resolved by the official prohibition forbidding Sovremennik to stage the piece. Between the beginning of the war and November 1941, around 12 million people were evacuated from the threatened areas to the rear. n Mcaie/ib, // Crpa Ha m MMp: 06Lii,ec TB.-no/i MTMHec KMM, a KOHOMMHec KMM m Ky/ib Typ HO- 4 )m/iococ|)ckmm nyp Ha/i. In Tatistcheff we find moreover: "Afterwards they clubbed down many Jews and plundered their houses, because they had brought about many sicknesses to Christians and commerce with them had brought about great damage. "was apparently so odious that the Politburo, reflecting on the lessons of Kronshtadt and the anti-Semitic mood of Petrograd, decided to send several ethnic Russian communists to Petrograd, though entirely for publicity purposes." So Uglanov took the place of Zorin-Homberg as head of Gubkom; Komarov replaced Trilisser and Semyonov went to the Cheka. Thus the Soviet Jews obtained a weighty share of state, industrial, and economic power at all levels of government in the USSR. We can glance into some of them from the more direct wording: for carrying out "special missions of top state importance on the clean-up of state apparatus in the Soviet diplomatic missions abroad. For example, in spring of 1930, Izvestiya reported on page 1 and under a separate heading that "F. Rotshtein, the board member of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, returned from vacation and resumed his duties. Take, for instance, Naum (Leonid) Etingon, who orchestrated the murder of Trotsky and was the organizer of the "Cambridge Five" espionage ring and who oversaw the nuclear espionage after the war — a true ace of espionage. And Etlis added: "The story is significantly distorted, placed upside down". However, propaganda for foreign consumption was a different matter. Many of them, who had gathered in their synagogue seeking protection, defended themselves, as well as they could, and redeemed time until Vladimir would arrive." But when he had come, "the Kievites pleaded with him for retribution toward the [G17] Jews, because they had taken all the trades from Christians and under Sviatopolk had had much freedom and power.... O natsionalnom samosoznanii russkogo evreja [Onthe National Consciousness of the Russian Jew], //RJ, p. But Zinoviev "objected to the decision of Politboro and fought the new group" - and as a result Uglanov was recalled from Petrograd and "a purely Russian opposition group formed spontaneously in the Petrograd organization," a group, "forced to counter the rest of the organization whose tone was set by Jews" (36). " 257 Now let's look at the state of affairs in diplomacy. " (Well, didn't they only write this way about Stalin?  Or take Lev Feldbin (he used a catchy pseudonym of 'Aleksandr Orlov'). "Solzhenitsyn failed to emphasize ..intelligent part of our contingent"... And in 1964 Sandler was lucky to relieve his feelings in conversation with Ehrenburg himself. For example, in December 1941, after repulsing the German onslaught on Moscow, Radio Moscow - not in the Russian language, of course, but "in Polish", and on "the next day, five more times in German, compared the successful Russian winter counteroffensive with the Maccabean miracle" and told the German- speaking listeners repeatedly that "precisely during Hanukkah week", the 134 th Nuremberg Division, named after the city "where the racial legislation originated" was destroyed. Thus the Orientalist and Semitist Abraham Harkavy for example writes that the Jewish congregation in the future Russia "emerged from Jews that came from the Black Sea coast and from the Caucasus, where their ancestors had lived since the Assyrian and Babylonian captivity." J. According to Harkavy's opinion the vernacular of these Jews at least since the ninth century was Slavic, and only in the 17 th century, when the Ukrainian Jews fled from the pogroms of Chmelnitzki [Bogdan Chmelnitzki, Ukrainian Cossack, 1593-1657, led the successful Cossack rebellion against Poland with help from the Crimean Tatars], did Yiddish become the language of Jews in Poland. When Russians see Russian women, elders and children freezing on the street 9 to 11 hours a day, getting soaked by the rain in their tents at the market and when they see relatively warm covered Jewish kiosks with bread and sausage they are not happy. We have a housing crisis in Moscow - masses of people are crowding into areas not fit for habitation and at the same time people see others pouring in from other parts of the country taking up housing. A national dissatisfaction is rising and a defensiveness and fea r of other nationalities. A Russian speaking to a Russian will say things that he will not say to a Jew. Murderous collectivization lay ahead, and at this decisive moment Stalin assigned Yakovlev-Epshtein as its sinister principal executive. Brodsky, were prominently reproduced in newspapers then and later, from year to year. Together with the already mentioned M. The important organization, the Grain Trust, was attached to the people's commissariat of agriculture to pump out grain from peasants for the state; the chairman of the board of directors was M. Gerchikov, his portraits appeared in Izvestiya, and Stalin himself sent him a telegram of encouragement. Understanding the impossibility of depicting everything like it was in reality, because it would be inevitably considered as incitement of anti-Jewish sentiment (as if that trio of Jews was not inflaming it in real life, caring little about consequences) I withheld the abominably greedy Bershader. I recomposed the profiteer 299 Rosa Kalikman into an amorphous Bella of eastern origin, and retained the only Jew, accountant Solomonov, exactly like he was in life. 14 As already noted, all the cited wartime and postwar sources agree in recognizing the energy and the scale of the organized evacuation of Jews from the advancing German army. ro/ibfliu Te MH // Pycc Kaa Mbic/ib, 1968, 1 a Brycia, c.
[G15] In various manners the Jews also came to Kiev and settled there. Many are saying that there are too many Jews in Moscow. Kalmanovich, he was a member of the very top Soviet of Labor and Defense (there was hardly anyone apart from Stalin, Molotov, Mikoyan, Ordzhonikidze, Voroshilov in that organ).  From 1932 the People's Commissariat of Sovkhozes and Kolkhozes with M. So, what about my loyal Jewish friends after they perused the play? He read it not immediately but when Sovremennik had already decided to stage it in 1962, so the question was far from schola rly. But the later sources, from the end of the 1940s, began to challenge this. In 933 Prince Igor [912-945, Grand Prince of Kiev, successor of Oleg, regent after death of Riurik founder of the Kiev Kingdom in 862] temporarily possessed Kerch, and his son Sviatoslav [Grand Prince 960-972] [G14] wrested the Don region from the Khazars. Bukharin had been speaking in answer to a remarkable speech by Prof. The February Revolution established the equality of all citizens of Russia, including Jews. Yet much more power was in the hands of the narkoms. However, when an alien emerges as a "master over life and death" it further adds to the heavy resentment. 10 The materials of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (EAK) contain the following statement: "At the beginning of the Patriotic War about one and half million Jews were evacuated to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and other Central Asian Republics." 11 This figure does not include the Volga, the Ural and the Siberian regions. 22 From the end of the war to Stalin's death 336 Ch. Later a Jewish settlement sustained itself without break under the Goths and Huns in the Crimea; especially Kaffa (Feodosia) remained Jewish. O evreiskoj nenavisti k Rossii [On the Jewish Hatred Toward Russia].// "22": Obshchestvenno- politichesky i literaturny zhurnal evreyskoj intel ligentsii iz SSSR v Izrail e [Social, Political and Literary Journal of the Jewish Intelligentsia fromthe USSR in Israel]. When NEP (New Economic Policy) was crushed, the blow fell with less force against Jewish NEPmen owing to connections in Soviet ruling circles. Klyutchnikov, a publicist and a former Kadet [Translator's note: Constitutional Democrat], In December 1926, the professor spoke at a "meeting on the Jewish question" at the Moscow Conservatory. Its source is the hurt national feelings of Russians. And there was no concern that they lacked knowledge of each new locality of which they took charge. And did Russian Idiots behave in the same way, unrestrained and insanely!? But within every other nation it was perceived socially, like an eternal strain between rich and poor, lord and servant. Evacuees and refugees from the occupied and threatened territories were sent deep into the rear, "with the majority of Jews resettled beyond the Ural Mountains, in particular in Western Siberia and also in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan". Epa TCKMM 6oe BOM cohd3 Hapofl OB CCCP b Be/i MKOM OTenec TBe HHOM BOMHe. The interest was greater than later in the 18 th century, when they again were physically close. Larin notes: "Jewish revolutionaries play a bigger part than any others in revolutionary activity" thanks to their qualities, Jewish workers often find it easierto rise to positions of local leadership" (32). In the pages of Izvestiya one could read headlines like this: "The management of the Union's Fishing Trust made major political mistakes." As a result, Moisei Frumkin was relieved of his post at the board of the People's Commissariat of Ddomestic Trade (we saw him in the 1920s as a deputy of the Narkom of Foreign Trade). Of course, not all of them were Jews but a good half were. Slutsky was the director of the NKVD's foreign section; that is, he was in charge of espionage abroad. the main personage was Ivan Denisovich, a man with minimal spiritual needs, focused only on his mundane troubles" -and Solzhenitsyn turned him into the national image... Second, and this was probably the more -important factor - German propaganda vigorously denounced "Judeo-Bolshevism" and the Soviet leadership undoubtedly realized that they gave a solid foundation to this propaganda during the 1920s and 1930s, so how could they now declare openly and loudly that the foremost government priority must be to save Jews? Then, for more than a century, the Jews took part in the expanded commerce of Kiev. In the same issue of Pravda, it is noted that Jews at 5.2% of the Party were in the third place after Russians (72%) and Ukrainians (5.9%), followed by Latvians (2.5%) and then Georgians, 197 Tatars, Poles and Byelorussians. Comrade Frumkin was punished with a stern reprimand and a warning; comrade Kleiman suffered the same punishment; and comrade Nepryakhin was expelled from the party. Soon after that, Izvestiya publis hed an addendum to the roster of the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry with 215 names in it. A present-day author thus writes about those people: by the 1930s "the children of the declasse Jewish petty bourgeois succeeded ... So, the Jewish Chekists were still there; they didn't leave, nor were they forced out of the NKVD, the same NKVD which was devouring the country after the death of Kirov, and which later devoured itself. "His deputies were Boris Berman and Sergey Shpigelglas." Pauker was a barber from Budapest, who connected with the communists while he was a Russian POW in 1916. (Exactly like all well-meaning communists were grumbling atthat time! 3/i/inncbi cyflb6bi // Bpe Mfl m Mbi: Mexcfly Hapofl Hbm xcyp Ha/i /imepa Typbi m o6uj,ec TBe HHbix npo6/ie M. This could only have been seen as playing into Hitler's hands.
In the Crimea, on the other hand, they combined with the Polovtsy [nomadic Turkish branch from central Asia, in the northern Black Sea area and the Caucasus since the 10 th century; called Cuman by western historians; see second map, below] to form the Crimean Tatars. A certain imbalance has developed with respect to the proportion of the Jewish population in the country as a whole and the positions they have temporarily occupied in the cities. Take the worldwide-famous narkom of foreign affairs Litvinov (in the friendly cartoons in Izvestiya, he was portrayed as a knight of peace with a spear and shield taking a stand against foreign filth); no less remarkable, but only within the limits of the USSR, was the narkom of internal affairs Yagoda; the ascending and all-glorious "Iron Narkom" of railroads, Lazar Kaganovich; foreign trade was headed by A. Kalmanovich was in charge of sovkhozes [state owned farms that paid wages] (he was the foods-commissar from the end of 1917); I. Belenky was the head of the Commission of the Soviet Control. Gurevich ("he made a significant contribution to the creation of the metallurgical industry in the country"); Semyon Ginzburg, he was deputy narkom of heavy industry, and later he became narkom of construction, and even later minister of construction of military enterprises. isn't it all the same who exactly seizes the power inside the camp and celebrates crow's picnics over his trench-grave? These things have been etched into my memory inerasably. 8 Be/io Mopc KO-Ba/i TMMCKMM Ka Ha/i mv\ei-m Cia/i MHa: Hciopnn CTpome/ib CTBa / riofl pefl. 13 At the same time, "the Jewish colonists in the Crimea were evacuated so much ahead of time that they were able to take with them all livestock and farm implements"; moreover, "it is well- known that in the spring of 1942, Jewish colonists from Ukraine established kolkhozes in the Volga region" How?