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The Polish resistance movement also conducted dozens of attacks on German commanders operating in occupied Poland.
The biggest series of assassinations of Nazi officials by the during World War II was Operation Heads.
After Germany started its invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, the Soviet Union joined the Allies and signed an Anglo-Soviet Agreement on 12 July 1941.
The Home Army, though in theory subordinate to the civil authorities and to the Government in Exile, often acted somewhat independently, with neither the Home Army's commanders in Poland nor the "London government" fully aware of the others' situation.
Home Army units carried out thousands of armed raids and intelligence operations, sabotaged hundreds of railway shipments, and participated in many partisan clashes and battles with German police and Wehrmacht units.
The Home Army also assassinated prominent Nazi collaborators and Gestapo officials in retaliation against Nazi terror inflicted on Poland's civilian population; prominent individuals assassinated by the Home Army included Igo Sym (1941) and Franz Kutschera (1944).
Several dozen death sentences were performed in this action. R." They had been invited in March 1945 to help organize a Polish Government of National Unity and had been immediately arrested by the Soviet NKVD.
The most known actions of this type are June 1945 Moscow show trial of 16 leaders of the Polish wartime underground movement (including Home Army and civil authorities), who were convicted of "drawing up plans for military action against the U. Despite the court's lenience, 6 years later only two were still alive.
Though a Polish-Soviet agreement was signed in August 1941, cooperation continued to be difficult and deteriorated further after 1943 when Nazi Germany publicized the Katyn massacre of 1940.